Ivory Gull

Pagophila eburnea

General Status Rank: 
At Risk
ELCODE: 
ABNNM07010
Common Name: 
Ivory Gull
Scientific Name: 
Pagophila eburnea
Taxonomy
Group: 
Bird
Kingdom: 
Animalia
Phylum: 
Chordata
Class: 
Aves
Order: 
Charadriiformes
Family: 
Laridae
References: 
General Biology
Canada Known Subspecies Count: 
0

Longevity

> 15 years
References: 
Reproduction Frequency Per Year: 
0

Economic/Human Considerations

non-hunted species
References: 
Habitat
live on ice at polynias, nest on cliffs
References: 
Distribution

Ecozones

Arctic Cordillera, Northern Arctic
References: 

Distribution

unkown (from 0% to less than 3% nesting, unknown non-nesting); Range is less than 1% of NWT landmass. Range extent visually estimated from range map in "Distribution of birds in NWT & Nunavut: 2009 Review" (CWS)
Score: 
E
References: 
Winter Distribution Description: 
Davies Strait in March for birds nesting prob in Greenland or in N Europe, on arctic pack ice for birds nesting at an unkown location - may be in Canada, northern Alaska and Beaufort Sea in fall for birds prob nesting in northern Russia; different populat

Number of Occurrences

2 colonies (northern Prince Patrick and on Polynia Island) were present prior to 1979; disappeared in early 1980; Confirmed Breeding on banks Island in 1996 (eBird range map, Jan 2015) Only five records in eBird (Banks I., Beaufort Sea); a few other historical records in BEM.  One found dead in Aklavik mid-2000s (M. Mallory, CWS - DPT has some details) BEM = Bird Ecosystem Maps - Chown 2011
Score: 
A
References: 

Historical Distribution

2 colonies (northern Prince Patrick and on Polynia Island) were present prior to 1979 (R030)
References: 

Area of Occupancy

new colonies are found due to increase efforts and/or movement of birds; trend difficult to establish: Possibly declining based on recent Inuit low knowledge reports
Score: 
-
References: 
Population

Population Size

over 2400 in Canadian Arctic; unknown in NWT (R030); Possibly only 480 (0.20 of 2400) individuals in Canadian Arctic by 2003; less than 14,000 breeding pairs in the World (A118); 1-50 individuals in the NWT
Score: 
A
References: 

Density

colonial
Threats

Threats

human disturbance, oil spills; Contaminants -although threats to population in arctic is low, vunerability of the species is high
Score: 
B

Intrinsic Vulnerability

possibly pollution, development, disturbance, global climate change ;Although threats to habitat in arctic is low, vunerability of the species is high
Score: 
-
General Status Rank
Rank: 
At Risk
Status Rank Description: 
Sensitive to disturbance, small population, few breeding sites in NU, and location and status of colonies in NWT are uncertain, effect of human disturbance can be high; reasons for decline between the 1980s and 2000s is unknown but may be ecosystem wide. Status report under review (May 2006)- expected to be uplisted to endangered nationally (CS33) Species is rarely observed in NWT, breeding colonies are unknown, but population is likely small and vulnerable to human distrubances. Confirmed breeding on Banks Island.
S Rank: 
S1
Decision Process Description: 
Drafted by Grant Gilchrist and Myra Robertson, reviewed by S. Carriere based mostly on printed material in 2000; Reviewed in 2005 by C. Swoboda, based on printed material: Modified to At risk due to new assessment by COSEWIC (2006); Reviewed in 2010;no change; ; Reviewed by Danica Hogan CWS in 2015, no change
Last Updated: 
October 17, 2017
Status Designations

NWT - Assessment by Species at Risk Committee

NWT SARC Assessment: 
Not Applicable
Species under federal jurisdiction

NWT - Species at Risk Legal Status

NWT Status Rank: 
Not Applicable
Species under federal jurisdiction cannot be listed under the Species At Risk (NWT) Act

Canada – Assessment by Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada

COSEWIC Status: 
Endangered
2006; Designated Special Concern in April 1979. Status re-examined and confirmed in April 1996 and in November 2001. Status re-examined and designated Endangered in April 2006. Last assessment based on an update status report." COSEWIC 2006. COSEWIC assessment and update status report on the Ivory Gull Pagophila eburnea in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. vi + 42 pp. (www.sararegistry.gc.ca/status/status_e.cfm)."
References: 

Canada – Species at Risk Legal Status

SARA Status: 
Endangered
2009
References: 

References

Area of Occupancy

  • Gilchrist Grant (2000) Pers. communication. Wildlife Population Biologist, Eastern Arctic, CWS Yellowknife - H131 Return
  • Alvo R (1996) Updated status report on the ivory gull Pagophila eburnea in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) RWED Library Folder - R030 Return
  • Gilchrist, H. G. and Mallory, M. L. (2004) Declines in abundance and distribution of the ivory gull (Pagophila eburnea) in Arctic Canada.. Biol. Conservation 121:303-309 - A118 Return
  • Stenhouse, H.G. Gilchrist, H.G., Malloray, M.L., and Robertson G.J. (2006) Unsolicited COSEWIC Update status report on Ivory Gull Pagophila eburnea.. Prepared for COSEWIC April 2006 SAM Binder of SAM 2006 - RSC18 Return
COSEWIC Status
  • Alvo R (1996) Updated status report on the ivory gull Pagophila eburnea in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) RWED Library Folder - R030 Return
  • Mallory, Mark (2005) Pers. Communication, Seabird Biologist, CWS, Iqaluit,Iqaluit. - CS33 Return
  • Stenhouse, H.G. Gilchrist, H.G., Malloray, M.L., and Robertson G.J. (2006) Unsolicited COSEWIC Update status report on Ivory Gull Pagophila eburnea.. Prepared for COSEWIC April 2006 SAM Binder of SAM 2006 - RSC18 Return

Economic Status

  • Gilchrist Grant (2000) Pers. communication. Wildlife Population Biologist, Eastern Arctic, CWS Yellowknife - H131 Return
  • Robertson Myra (2000) Pers. communication. Wildlife Population Technician, Eastern Arctic, CWS Yellowknife - H132 Return

Ecozones

  • Godfrey WE (1986) The Birds of Canada. National Museums of Canada Revised Edition RWED Library Call #QL685.G6 - B004 Return

Federal Species at Risk Status

  • Government of Canada (2016) Species at Risk Public Registry. http://www.sararegistry.gc.ca/default_e.cfm - W103 Return

Habitat

  • Gilchrist Grant (2000) Pers. communication. Wildlife Population Biologist, Eastern Arctic, CWS Yellowknife - H131 Return
  • Robertson Myra (2000) Pers. communication. Wildlife Population Technician, Eastern Arctic, CWS Yellowknife - H132 Return
  • Alvo R (1996) Updated status report on the ivory gull Pagophila eburnea in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) RWED Library Folder - R030 Return

Historical Distribution

  • Alvo R (1996) Updated status report on the ivory gull Pagophila eburnea in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) RWED Library Folder - R030 Return

Intrinsic Vulnerability

  • Godfrey WE (1986) The Birds of Canada. National Museums of Canada Revised Edition RWED Library Call #QL685.G6 - B004 Return
  • Gilchrist Grant (2000) Pers. communication. Wildlife Population Biologist, Eastern Arctic, CWS Yellowknife - H131 Return
  • Robertson Myra (2000) Pers. communication. Wildlife Population Technician, Eastern Arctic, CWS Yellowknife - H132 Return
  • Alvo R (1996) Updated status report on the ivory gull Pagophila eburnea in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) RWED Library Folder - R030 Return
  • Danica Hogan and Paul F. Woodard (2015) ecopy - H305 Return

Longevity

  • Alvo R (1996) Updated status report on the ivory gull Pagophila eburnea in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) RWED Library Folder - R030 Return

NWT Known Subspecies

Alvo R (1996) Updated status report on the ivory gull Pagophila eburnea in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) RWED Library Folder - R030 Return

Number of Occurrences

  • Alvo R (1996) Updated status report on the ivory gull Pagophila eburnea in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) RWED Library Folder - R030 Return
  • Danica Hogan and Paul F. Woodard (2015) ecopy - H305 Return

Population Size

Alvo R (1996) Updated status report on the ivory gull Pagophila eburnea in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) RWED Library Folder - R030 Return
,
Gilchrist, H. G. and Mallory, M. L. (2004) Declines in abundance and distribution of the ivory gull (Pagophila eburnea) in Arctic Canada.. Biol. Conservation 121:303-309 - A118 Return
,
Danica Hogan and Paul F. Woodard (2015) ecopy - H305 Return

Range Extent

  • Carrière, S. (2000) Pers. communication. Ecosystem Management Biologist; RWED - H126 Return
  • Gilchrist Grant (2000) Pers. communication. Wildlife Population Biologist, Eastern Arctic, CWS Yellowknife - H131 Return
  • Robertson Myra (2000) Pers. communication. Wildlife Population Technician, Eastern Arctic, CWS Yellowknife - H132 Return
  • Alvo R (1996) Updated status report on the ivory gull Pagophila eburnea in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) RWED Library Folder - R030 Return

Taxonomy

  • Godfrey WE (1986) The Birds of Canada. National Museums of Canada Revised Edition RWED Library Call #QL685.G6 - B004 Return

Threats

  • Godfrey WE (1986) The Birds of Canada. National Museums of Canada Revised Edition RWED Library Call #QL685.G6 - B004 Return
  • Gilchrist Grant (2000) Pers. communication. Wildlife Population Biologist, Eastern Arctic, CWS Yellowknife - H131 Return
  • Robertson Myra (2000) Pers. communication. Wildlife Population Technician, Eastern Arctic, CWS Yellowknife - H132 Return
  • Alvo R (1996) Updated status report on the ivory gull Pagophila eburnea in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) RWED Library Folder - R030 Return
  • Danica Hogan and Paul F. Woodard (2015) ecopy - H305 Return