Wildlife diseases

About wildlife diseases

Although most wild animals in the Northwest Territories (NWT) are healthy, diseases and parasites can occur in any wildlife population. Some of these diseases can infect people or domestic animals. It is important to regularly assess and monitor disease in wildlife populations so we can take steps to reduce their impact on healthy animals.

Anthrax outbreak in the Northwest Territories, 2012
Anthrax outbreak in the Northwest Territories, 2012

Chronic Wasting Disease

Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) is a degenerative, fatal brain disease that affects members of the deer family. CWD has not been detected in any wildlife species in the NWT, nor has it been detected in caribou populations anywhere in North America.

ENR is working with hunters and neighbouring jurisdictions to prevent the spread of CWD into the NWT by encouraging hunters to get harvested deer, moose and caribou tested, and by controlling the import of live deer and high-risk deer parts into the NWT.

For more on CWD, read our FAQ on Chronic Wasting Disease.

Ticks of the Northwest Territories

Ticks are blood-feeding parasites that live on birds, mammals and reptiles. Ticks are rarely found in the Northwest Territories (NWT) on pets, humans and wildlife.

The winter tick (Dermacentor albipictus) can cause skin disease in certain wildlife species, like moose and caribou. Rabbit ticks (Haemaphysalis leporispalustris) have been observed on snowshoe hares.  Occasionally, tick species can be introduced by movement of animals into the territory from other regions (e.g. migratory birds and dogs).

Some tick species can carry pathogens and agents that can cause disease in humans and animals. The risk of becoming infected with the bacterium that causes Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi) in the NWT is very low. Tick species capable of carrying this infection are not known to occur in the NWT.

If you find a tick on yourself, friend or family member, use appropriate methods to remove it and contact your health care provider or the NWT Department of Health and Social Services at 867.767.9066.

If you find a tick on your pet, contact your local veterinarian or the Wildlife Division of ENR at 867.767.9237 ext. 53232

If you find a tick on a wild animal, contact your local ENR office.  

For more information on ticks, download the Ticks of the Northwest Territories brochure or fact sheet

 

Precautions

Hunters should look for signs of sickness in an animal before they shoot, such as:

  • poor condition (weak, sluggish, thin, or lame)
  • swellings or lumps, hair loss, blood, or discharges from the nose or mouth
  • abnormal behaviour (loss of fear of people, aggressiveness)

If you shoot a sick animal

  • Do not cut into diseased parts.
  • Wash your hands, knives and clothes in hot soapy water after you've finished cutting up and skinning the animal and disinfect with a weak bleach solution.
  • If meat from an infected animal can be eaten, make sure you take the proper precautions to handle and prepare the meat.
  • Do not feed parts of infected animals to dogs.
  • It is important to report all wildlife diseases.

When collecting sample, make sure you

  • Wear rubber gloves to protect yourself.
  • Place each sample in a separate plastic bag.
  • Unless otherwise noted, samples should be submitted frozen or kept cool.
  • Record the following information:
    • Date and location collected
    • Type of animal
    • Sex and estimated age of the animal
    • Description of the sample
    • Any other conditions that may be important (e.g. unusual weather, signs of a struggle)

A sample kit is available from your local or regional Environment and Natural Resources office. It contains a disease form you can use to record your information.

Resources

Field Guide to Wildlife Diseases

Although most wild animals in the NWT are healthy, diseases and parasites can occur in any wildlife population. Some of these diseases can infect people or domestic animals. It is important to regularly monitor and assess diseases in wildlife populations so we can take steps to reduce their impact on healthy animals and people. The information in this field guide should help hunters to:

  • recognize sickness in an animal before they shoot
  • identify a disease or parasite in an animal they have killed
  • know how to protect themselves from infection
  • help wildlife agencies monitor wildlife disease and parasites

The diseases in this field guide are grouped according to where they are most often seen in the body of the animal: skin, head, liver, lungs, muscle, and general.

Quarterly report of the Canadian Wildlife Health Cooperative

The Canadian Wildlife Health Cooperative (CWHC) is a collection of highly qualified people within a cross-Canada network of partners and collaborators dedicated to wildlife health. It includes internationally renowned wildlife disease diagnosticians and researchers, experts in population health, skilled educators and experienced policy advisors.

The CWHC is dedicated to generating knowledge needed to assess and manage wildlife health and working with others to make sure knowledge is put to use in a timely fashion. It issues a quarterly report on wildlife disease and health.

More information

For more information on wildlife diseases, contact your local Renewable Resource Officer, Regional Biologist or the GNWT Wildlife Disease Specialist.